Thank you for providing a forum like this for followup on your books, Larry. So many people put out a book and then go off world as far as their readers are concerned. Already am looking forward to seeing your advanced books. Have been cruising through the QuickStart Guide and really slowed down at arrays. I've since learned the role of the => (holds) operator, but it was introduced in the book suddenly, with no description, and wasn't listed in the operators table. Had to go online, talk to a friend, and consult other books. But it's good, i know what it is now and how it works. There is a question (i guess confusion) i have from exercise 7.4, multidimensional arrays. In the last 2 lines of code before the close, "<p>$key: $value</p>" produces these two variables on the fly, with no assignment values given. This isn't explained. Are $key and $value preassigned variables that contain all array keys and values? Thanks for any help.