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// script 18.6

if ($_SERVER['REQUEST_METHOD'] == 'POST') { // Handle the form.

	// Need the database connection:
	require (MYSQL);
	// Trim all the incoming data:
	$trimmed = array_map('trim', $_POST);

	// Assume invalid values:
	$fn = $ln = $e = $p = FALSE;
	// Check for a first name:
	if (preg_match ('/^[A-Z \'.-]{2,20}$/i', $trimmed['first_name'])) {
		$fn = mysqli_real_escape_string ($dbc, $trimmed['first_name']);
	} else {
		echo '<p class="error">Please enter your first name!</p>';

	// Check for a last name:
	if (preg_match ('/^[A-Z \'.-]{2,40}$/i', $trimmed['last_name'])) {
		$ln = mysqli_real_escape_string ($dbc, $trimmed['last_name']);
	} else {
		echo '<p class="error">Please enter your last name!</p>';
	// Check for an email address:
	if (filter_var($trimmed['email'], FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)) {
		$e = mysqli_real_escape_string ($dbc, $trimmed['email']);
	} else {
		echo '<p class="error">Please enter a valid email address!</p>';

	// Check for a password and match against the confirmed password:
	if (preg_match ('/^\w{4,20}$/', $trimmed['password1']) ) {
		if ($trimmed['password1'] == $trimmed['password2']) {
			$p = mysqli_real_escape_string ($dbc, $trimmed['password1']);
		} else {
			echo '<p class="error">Your password did not match the confirmed password!</p>';
	} else {
		echo '<p class="error">Please enter a valid password!</p>';
	if ($fn && $ln && $e && $p) { // If everything's OK...

		// Make sure the email address is available:
		$q = "SELECT user_id FROM users WHERE email='$e'";
		$r = mysqli_query ($dbc, $q) or trigger_error("Query: $q\n<br />MySQL Error: " . mysqli_error($dbc));
		if (mysqli_num_rows($r) == 0) { // Available.

			// Create the activation code:
			$a = md5(uniqid(rand(), true));

			// new line
			// new line
			$hash=password_hash($p, PASSWORD_BCRYPT);

			// Add the user to the database:
			$q = "INSERT INTO users (email, pass, first_name, last_name, active, registration_date) VALUES ('$e', '"  .  password_hash($p, PASSWORD_BCRYPT) .  "', '$fn', '$ln', '$a', NOW() )";
			$r = mysqli_query ($dbc, $q) or trigger_error("Query: $q\n<br />MySQL Error: " . mysqli_error($dbc));

			if (mysqli_affected_rows($dbc) == 1) { // If it ran OK.

				// Send the email:
				$body = "Thank you for registering at <whatever site>. To activate your account, please click on this link:\n\n";
				$body .= BASE_URL . 'activate/x=' . urlencode($e) . "&y=$a";
				mail($trimmed['email'], 'Registration Confirmation', $body, 'From: mymail@sample.com');
				// Finish the page:
				echo '<h3>Thank you for registering! A confirmation email has been sent to your address. Please click on the link in that email in order to activate your account.</h3>';
				include ('includes/footer.html'); // Include the HTML footer.
				exit(); // Stop the page.
			} else { // If it did not run OK.
				echo '<p class="error">You could not be registered due to a system error. We apologize for any inconvenience.</p>';
		} else { // The email address is not available.
			echo '<p class="error">That email address has already been registered. If you have forgotten your password, use the link at right to have your password sent to you.</p>';
	} else { // If one of the data tests failed.
		echo '<p class="error">Please try again.</p>';


} // End of the main Submit conditional.
<form action="http://www.sample.com/register/" method="post">
	<p><b>First Name:</b> <input type="text" name="first_name" size="20" maxlength="20" value="<?php if (isset($trimmed['first_name'])) echo $trimmed['first_name']; ?>" /></p>
	<p><b>Last Name:</b> <input type="text" name="last_name" size="20" maxlength="40" value="<?php if (isset($trimmed['last_name'])) echo $trimmed['last_name']; ?>" /></p>

	<p><b>Email Address:</b> <input type="text" name="email" size="30" maxlength="60" value="<?php if (isset($trimmed['email'])) echo $trimmed['email']; ?>" /> </p>
	<p><b>Password:</b> <input type="password" name="password1" size="20" maxlength="20" value="<?php if (isset($trimmed['password1'])) echo $trimmed['password1']; ?>" /> <small>Use only letters, numbers, and the underscore. Must be between 4 and 20 characters long.</small></p>

	<p><b>Confirm Password:</b> <input type="password" name="password2" size="20" maxlength="20" value="<?php if (isset($trimmed['password2'])) echo $trimmed['password2']; ?>" /></p>
	<div align="center"><input type="submit" name="submit" value="Register" /></div>

<?php # Script 18.7 - activate.php
// This page activates the user's account.
require ('includes/config.inc.php'); 
$page_title = 'Activate Your Account';
include ('includes/header.html');

// If $x and $y don't exist or aren't of the proper format, redirect the user:
if (isset($_GET['x'], $_GET['y']) 
	&& filter_var($_GET['x'], FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL)
	&& (strlen($_GET['y']) == 32 )
	) {

	// Update the database...
	require (MYSQL);
	$q = "UPDATE users SET active=NULL WHERE (email='" . mysqli_real_escape_string($dbc, $_GET['x']) . "' AND active='" . mysqli_real_escape_string($dbc, $_GET['y']) . "') LIMIT 1";
	$r = mysqli_query ($dbc, $q) or trigger_error("Query: $q\n<br />MySQL Error: " . mysqli_error($dbc));
	// Print a customized message:
	if (mysqli_affected_rows($dbc) == 1) {
		echo "<h3>Your account is now active. You may now log in.</h3>";
	} else {
		echo '<p class="error">Your account could not be activated. Please re-check the link or contact the system administrator.</p>'; 


} else { // Redirect.

	$url = BASE_URL . 'index.php'; // Define the URL.
	ob_end_clean(); // Delete the buffer.
	header("Location: $url");
	exit(); // Quit the script.

} // End of main IF-ELSE.

include ('includes/footer.html');

I am modularizing a site that uses the registration (18.6) and activation (18.7) scripts from Chapter 18.  All works fine until I try to rewrite activation.php to activation.inc.php and place it in the modules folder.  When the activation e-mail comes and I click on the link, I receive a 404/Page Not Found.  I am using the following in my .htaccess:


RewriteEngine On

RewriteRule ^(home|register)/?$ index.php?=$1 [L]

RewriteRule ^(activate)/?$ index.php?p=$1&x=$2&y=$3 [L]


As mentioned, registration works to the point of all data being inserted into database and the "Registration Confirmation" e-mail being received.  It strongly appears to be a matter of my mod_rewrite syntax.


Any suggestions as to where I am in error would be appreciated.


Thank you.






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