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I created a chart demonstrating the site architecture of this example, which can be found here, and the database ERD of this example can be found here. REVIEW: 1. What impact does a database's character set, or a PHP or HTML page's encoding have? An HTML page or PHP script can specify its encoding, which dictates what characters, and therefore languages, are supported. Similarly, by setting your MySQL databases encoding, you can impact what characters can be stored in it. (Ullman 184) 2. Why does the encoding and character set have to be the same everywhere? What happens if there are differences? The encoding and character set affects what characters and languages are supported and can be stored. When communicating with MySQL those characters need to be transferred using the same encoding (Ullman 186). Failing to do so will likely result in odd characters when viewing the page in a Web browser. (Ullman 2) 3. What is a primary key? What is a foreign key? A Primary key is a unique identifier that has to abide by certain rules Always have a value (cannot be NULL) Have a value that remains the same (Never Changes) Have a unique value for each record in a table. A foreign key is the representation in Table B of the primary key from Table A (Ullman 167). 4. What is the benefit of using UTC for stored dates and times? Using UTC stores dates and times in a time-zone neutral way. UTC, like Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), provides a common point of origin, from which all times in the world can be expressed as UTC plus or minus some hours and minutes (Ullman 189) 5. Why is the pass column in the users table set as a CHAR instead of a VARCHAR, when each user's password could be of a variable length? CHAR will always be stored as a string the length of the column, using spaces to pad it (Ullman 117). The SHA1() function is being used to encrypt the password, which creates an encrypted string that is always exactly 40 characters long. Therefore, the users table's pass column is defined as CHAR(40) (Ullman 135). 6. How do you begin a session in PHP? How do you store a value in a session? How do you retrieve a previously stored value? session_start(); $_SESSION['key'] = value; $_SESSION['var']; 7. How do you create an alias in a SQL command? What are the benefits of using an alias? Aliases are created using the term AS within queries. An alias is a symbolic renaming of an item used in a query to a shorter length alternative for easier callback and less typing work (Ullman 153). PURSUE: Modify the header and other files so that each page’s title uses both the default lang page title and a subtitle based upon the page being viewed (e.g., the name of the thread currently shown). Add pagination to the forum.php script (see p316, view_users.php). If you want, add the necessary columns to the words table, and the appropriate code to the PHP scripts, so that every navigational, error, and other element is language-specific. Use a Web site such as Yahoo! BabelFish (http://babelfish.yahoo.com) for the Translations. Apply the redirect_user() function to post_form.php here (see p372). Create a search page for this forum. If you need help, see the search.php basic example available in the downloadable code.
In chapter 17, when creating the post.php file, for some reason it does not register the enter/return key as starting a new paragraph, so it displays as one big paragraph for each post. What am I doing wrong?